AMGL & Co.
Certified Public Accountants
HKAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows
The objective of this Standard is to require the provision of information about the historical changes in cash and cash equivalents of an entity by means of a statement of cash flows which classifies cash flows during the period from operating, investing and financing activities.
An entity shall prepare a statement of cash flows in accordance with the requirements of this Standard and shall present it as an integral part of its financial statements for each period for which financial statements are presented. (HKAS 7.1)
Benefits of cash flow information
A statement of cash flows, when used in conjunction with the rest of the financial statements, provides information that enables users to evaluate the changes in net assets of an entity, its financial structure (including its liquidity and solvency) and its ability to affect the amounts and timing of cash flows in order to adapt to changing circumstances and opportunities. Cash flow information is useful in assessing the ability of the entity to generate cash and cash equivalents and enables users to develop models to assess and compare the present value of the future cash flows of different entities. It also enhances the comparability of the reporting of operating performance by different entities because it eliminates the effects of using different accounting treatments for the same transactions and events. (HKAS 7.4)
Historical cash flow information is often used as an indicator of the amount, timing and certainty of future cash flows. It is also useful in checking the accuracy of past assessments of future cash flows and in examining the relationship between profitability and net cash flow and the impact of changing prices. (HKAS 7.5)
Cash comprises cash on hand and demand deposits. (HKAS 7.6)
Cash equivalents are short-term, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. (HKAS 7.6)
Cash flows are inflows and outflows of cash and cash equivalents. (HKAS 7.6)
Operating activities are the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity and other activities that are not investing or financing activities. (HKAS 7.6)
Investing activities are the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash equivalents. (HKAS 7.6)
Financing activities are activities that result in changes in the size and composition of the contributed equity and borrowings of the entity. (HKAS 7.6)
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash equivalents are held for the purpose of meeting short-term cash commitments rather than for investment or other purposes. For an investment to qualify as a cash equivalent it must be readily convertible to a known amount of cash and be subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value. Therefore, an investment normally qualifies as a cash equivalent only when it has a short maturity of, say, three months or less from the date of acquisition. Equity investments are excluded from cash equivalents unless they are, in substance, cash equivalents, for example in the case of preferred shares acquired within a short period of their maturity and with a specified redemption date. (HKAS 7.7)
Presentation of a statement of cash flows
Cash flows from operating activities are primarily derived from the principal revenue-producing activities of the entity. Therefore, they generally result from the transactions and other events that enter into the determination of profit or loss. Examples of cash flows from operating activities are: (HKAS 7.14)
cash receipts from the sale of goods and the rendering of services;
cash receipts from royalties, fees, commissions and other revenue;
cash payments to suppliers for goods and services;
cash payments to and on behalf of employees;
cash receipts and cash payments of an insurance entity for premiums and claims, annuities and other policy benefits;
cash payments or refunds of income taxes unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities; and
cash receipts and payments from contracts held for dealing or trading purposes.
Some transactions, such as the sale of an item of plant, may give rise to a gain or loss that is included in recognised profit or loss. The cash flows relating to such transactions are cash flows from investing activities. However, cash payments to manufacture or acquire assets held for rental to others and subsequently held for sale as described in paragraph 68A of HKAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment are cash flows from operating activities. The cash receipts from rents and subsequent sales of such assets are also cash flows from operating activities.
The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from investing activities is important because the cash flows represent the extent to which expenditures have been made for resources intended to generate future income and cash flows. Only expenditures that result in a recognised asset in the statement of financial position are eligible for classification as investing activities. Examples of cash flows arising from investing activities are: (HKAS 7.16)
cash payments to acquire property, plant and equipment, intangibles and other long-term assets. These payments include those relating to capitalised development costs and self-constructed property, plant and equipment;
cash receipts from sales of property, plant and equipment, intangibles and other long-term assets;
cash payments to acquire equity or debt instruments of other entities and interests in joint ventures (other than payments for those instruments considered to be cash equivalents or those held for dealing or trading purposes);
cash receipts from sales of equity or debt instruments of other entities and interests in joint ventures (other than receipts for those instruments considered to be cash equivalents and those held for dealing or trading purposes);
cash advances and loans made to other parties (other than advances and loans made by a financial institution);
cash receipts from the repayment of advances and loans made to other parties (other than advances and loans of a financial institution);
cash payments for futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the payments are classified as financing activities; and
cash receipts from futures contracts, forward contracts, option contracts and swap contracts except when the contracts are held for dealing or trading purposes, or the receipts are classified as financing activities.
When a contract is accounted for as a hedge of an identifiable position, the cash flows of the contract are classified in the same manner as the cash flows of the position being hedged.
The separate disclosure of cash flows arising from financing activities is important because it is useful in predicting claims on future cash flows by providers of capital to the entity. Examples of cash flows arising from financing activities are: (HKAS 7.17)
cash proceeds from issuing shares or other equity instruments;
cash payments to owners to acquire or redeem the entity's shares;
cash proceeds from issuing debentures, loans, notes, bonds, mortgages and other short-term or long-term borrowings;
cash repayments of amounts borrowed; and
cash payments by a lessee for the reduction of the outstanding liability relating to a finance lease.
Reporting cash flows from operating activities
An entity shall report cash flows from operating activities using either: (HKAS 7.18)
the direct method, whereby major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments are disclosed; or
the indirect method, whereby profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts or payments, and items of income or expense associated with investing or financing cash flows.
Entities are encouraged to report cash flows from operating activities using the direct method. The direct method provides information which may be useful in estimating future cash flows and which is not available under the indirect method. Under the direct method, information about major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments may be obtained either: (HKAS 7.19)
from the accounting records of the entity; or
by adjusting sales, cost of sales (interest and similar income and interest expense and similar charges for a financial institution) and other items in the statement of comprehensive income for:
changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables;
other non-cash items; and
other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows.
Under the indirect method, the net cash flow from operating activities is determined by adjusting profit or loss for the effects of: (HKAS 7.20)
changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables;
non-cash items such as depreciation, provisions, deferred taxes, unrealised foreign currency gains and losses, and undistributed profits of associates; and
all other items for which the cash effects are investing or financing cash flows.
Alternatively, the net cash flow from operating activities may be presented under the indirect method by showing the revenues and expenses disclosed in the statement of comprehensive income and the changes during the period in inventories and operating receivables and payables.
Reporting cash flows from investing and financing activities
An entity shall report separately major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments arising from investing and financing activities, except to the extent that cash flows described in paragraphs 22 and 24 are reported on a net basis. (HKAS 7.21)
Reporting cash flows on a net basis
Cash flows arising from the following operating, investing or financing activities may be reported on a net basis: (HKAS 7.22)
cash receipts and payments on behalf of customers when the cash flows reflect the activities of the customer rather than those of the entity; and
cash receipts and payments for items in which the turnover is quick, the amounts are large, and the maturities are short.
Foreign currency cash flows
Cash flows arising from transactions in a foreign currency shall be recorded in an entity’s functional currency by applying to the foreign currency amount the exchange rate between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the date of the cash flow. (HKAS 7.25)
The cash flows of a foreign subsidiary shall be translated at the exchange rates between the functional currency and the foreign currency at the dates of the cash flows. (HKAS 7.26)
Cash flows denominated in a foreign currency are reported in a manner consistent with HKAS 21 The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates. This permits the use of an exchange rate that approximates the actual rate. For example, a weighted average exchange rate for a period may be used for recording foreign currency transactions or the translation of the cash flows of a foreign subsidiary. However, HKAS 21 does not permit use of the exchange rate at the end of the reporting period when translating the cash flows of a foreign subsidiary. (HKAS 7.27)
Unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in foreign currency exchange rates are not cash flows. However, the effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents held or due in a foreign currency is reported in the statement of cash flows in order to reconcile cash and cash equivalents at the beginning and the end of the period. This amount is presented separately from cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities and includes the differences, if any, had those cash flows been reported at end of period exchange rates. (HKAS 7.28)
Interest and dividends
Cash flows from interest and dividends received and paid shall each be disclosed separately. Each shall be classified in a consistent manner from period to period as either operating, investing or financing activities. (HKAS 7.31)
The total amount of interest paid during a period is disclosed in the statement of cash flows whether it has been recognised as an expense in profit or loss or capitalised in accordance with HKAS 23 Borrowing Costs. (HKAS 7.32)
Interest paid and interest and dividends received are usually classified as operating cash flows for a financial institution. However, there is no consensus on the classification of these cash flows for other entities. Interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as operating cash flows because they enter into the determination of profit or loss. Alternatively, interest paid and interest and dividends received may be classified as financing cash flows and investing cash flows respectively, because they are costs of obtaining financial resources or returns on investments. (HKAS 7.33)
Taxes on income
Cash flows arising from taxes on income shall be separately disclosed and shall be classified as cash flows from operating activities unless they can be specifically identified with financing and investing activities. (HKAS 7.35)
Taxes on income arise on transactions that give rise to cash flows that are classified as operating, investing or financing activities in a statement of cash flows. While tax expense may be readily identifiable with investing or financing activities, the related tax cash flows are often impracticable to identify and may arise in a different period from the cash flows of the underlying transaction. Therefore, taxes paid are usually classified as cash flows from operating activities. However, when it is practicable to identify the tax cash flow with an individual transaction that gives rise to cash flows that are classified as investing or financing activities the tax cash flow is classified as an investing or financing activity as appropriate. When tax cash flows are allocated over more than one class of activity, the total amount of taxes paid is disclosed. (HKAS 7.36)
Investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures
When accounting for an investment in an associate, a joint venture or a subsidiary accounted for by use of the equity or cost method, an investor restricts its reporting in the statement of cash flows to the cash flows between itself and the investee, for example, to dividends and advances. (HKAS 7.37)
Changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries and other businesses
The aggregate cash flows arising from obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses shall be presented separately and classified as investing activities. (HKAS 7.39)
An entity shall disclose, in aggregate, in respect of both obtaining and losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses during the period each of the following: (HKAS 7.40)
the total consideration paid or received;
the portion of the consideration consisting of cash and cash equivalents;
the amount of cash and cash equivalents in the subsidiaries or other businesses over which control is obtained or lost; and
the amount of the assets and liabilities other than cash or cash equivalents in the subsidiaries or other businesses over which control is obtained or lost, summarised by each major category.
The separate presentation of the cash flow effects of obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses as single line items, together with the separate disclosure of the amounts of assets and liabilities acquired or disposed of, helps to distinguish those cash flows from the cash flows arising from the other operating, investing and financing activities. The cash flow effects of losing control are not deducted from those of obtaining control. (HKAS 7.41)
Cash flows arising from changes in ownership interests in a subsidiary that do not result in a loss of control shall be classified as cash flows from financing activities, unless the subsidiary is held by an investment entity, as defined in HKFRS 10, and is required to be measured at fair value through profit or loss. (HKAS 7.42A)
Investing and financing transactions that do not require the use of cash or cash equivalents shall be excluded from a statement of cash flows. Such transactions shall be disclosed elsewhere in the financial statements in a way that provides all the relevant information about these investing and financing activities. (HKAS 7.43)
Many investing and financing activities do not have a direct impact on current cash flows although they do affect the capital and asset structure of an entity. The exclusion of non-cash transactions from the statement of cash flows is consistent with the objective of a statement of cash flows as these items do not involve cash flows in the current period. Examples of non-cash transactions are: (HKAS 7.44)
the acquisition of assets either by assuming directly related liabilities or by means of a finance lease;
the acquisition of an entity by means of an equity issue; and
the conversion of debt to equity.
Components of cash and cash equivalents
An entity shall disclose the components of cash and cash equivalents and shall present a reconciliation of the amounts in its statement of cash flows with the equivalent items reported in the statement of financial position. (HKAS 7.45)
An entity shall disclose, together with a commentary by management, the amount of significant cash and cash equivalent balances held by the entity that are not available for use by the group. (HKAS 7.48)
There are various circumstances in which cash and cash equivalent balances held by an entity are not available for use by the group. Examples include cash and cash equivalent balances held by a subsidiary that operates in a country where exchange controls or other legal restrictions apply when the balances are not available for general use by the parent or other subsidiaries. (HKAS 7.49)
Additional information may be relevant to users in understanding the financial position and liquidity of an entity. Disclosure of this information, together with a commentary by management, is encouraged and may include: (HKAS 7.50)
the amount of undrawn borrowing facilities that may be available for future operating activities and to settle capital commitments, indicating any restrictions on the use of these facilities;
the aggregate amount of cash flows that represent increases in operating capacity separately from those cash flows that are required to maintain operating capacity; and
the amount of the cash flows arising from the operating, investing and financing activities of each reportable segment (see HKFRS 8 Operating Segments).